Historical background

<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> was declared <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:
normal”>independent on </b></span><st1:date Month=”8″ Day=”16″ Year=”1960″>
<b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Verdana”>16 August, 1960</span></b></st1:date>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Verdana”>. Following the </span><st1:City>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>London</span></st1:place>
</st1:City>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> and </span><st1:City>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Zurich</span></st1:place>
</st1:City>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> agreements for the
establishment of the </span><st1:place>
<st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Verdana”>Republic</span></st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> of </span><st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:PlaceName>
</st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>, in February 1959,
a transitory period started on April 1959, from colonial status to
independence. A transitory committee, sort of Council of Ministers,
was formed under the presidency of archbishop Makarios and the
vice-presidency of Dr Fazil Kucuk. This first cabinet was composed by
seven Greek and three Turkish Cypriot ministers. <o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
first elections took place on </span><st1:date Month=”12″ Day=”13″ Year=”1959″>
<b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Verdana”>13 December 1959</span></b></st1:date>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Verdana”>. Makarios won the elections and was declared first
president of the </span><st1:place>
<st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Verdana”>Republic</span></st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> of </span><st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:PlaceName>
</st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> against Ioannis
Clerides who contested the presidency with the support of the
Democratic Union and the communist party AKEL.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>A
few days earlier, Fazil Kucuk was declared vice-president unopposed.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Elections
to the House of Representatives were due in early January 1960; they
were postponed until the </span><st1:date Month=”7″ Day=”31″ Year=”1960″>
<b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Verdana”>31 July 1960</span></b></st1:date>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:Verdana”> because some difficulties arose in the negotiations for
the final arrangements on independence. The Patriotic Front, AKEL, a
number of candidates of the Fighters Union and independents contested
the elections.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
plurality system and the agreement between the Patriotic Front and
AKEL to share all 35 seats, with the latter getting only five (5),
turned the contest into a mere exercise, since both the distribution
of seats and the persons to occupy them were decided in advance.<span style=”mso-spacerun:yes”>&nbsp;
</span><o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Elections
for the Turkish Cypriot deputies took place only in three (3)
constituencies (</span><st1:City>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Famagusta</span></st1:place>
</st1:City>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>,<span style=”mso-spacerun:yes”>&nbsp;
</span>Limassol and Pafos). The candidates of the National Front won
the elections against independent candidates in the above cases and
were elected unopposed in the remaining three constituencies.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>A
week later, elections to the two Communal Chambers took place. The
Patriotic Front and AKEL shared the seats (20 to 3 respectively)
following a pre-electoral agreement. Three seats were reserved to
representatives of the religious groups, the Armenians, the Maronites
and the Latins.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>All
thirty candidates of the National Front were elected unopposed in the
Turkish Communal Chamber. The one and only exception was the case of
Limassol, where an independent candidate was defeated.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Those
in power in the two communities tried to avoid electoral contest, both
for the House of Representatives and the Communal Chambers. They
succeeded only in some cases, because independent candidates insisted
that elections should take place and they did not withdraw their
candidacy.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Inter-communal
troubles in Christmas 1963 led to the collapse of the share of power
on community basis. The Greek Cypriots took full control of the state
and occupied all the posts and offices provided in the Constitution of
the Republic. The Turkish Cypriots put under their control part of the
</span><st1:place>
<st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>territory</span></st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> of </span><st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:PlaceName>
</st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> and created some
temporary structures of self administration.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
date of elections is postponed until <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>February
1968</b>, when Makarios decided to hold Presidential elections, with
the aim to have popular support for his new policy on the </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> question; Enosis,
union with </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Greece</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> is no more the aim
of the struggle, what is feasible became the new slogan. <o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>A
psychiatrist, Takis Evdokas, supported by all those who pleaded for
Enosis with </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:
Verdana”>Greece</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> opposed Makarios.
Evdokas received less than 4%.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Two
years later, in <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>July 1970</b>,
elections to the House of Representatives are organized; the office of
the first deputies lasted ten (10) years. Five parties contested the
elections, AKEL and the newly formed United Nationalistic Party (Eniaion),
the Progressive Front, the United Democratic Center Party (EDEK) and
the Democratic National Party (DEK), the only party opposing Makarios’
policies.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Eniaion
secured fifteen (15) seats, against nine (9) for AKEL, which contested
only nine, seven (7) for the Progressive Front and two (2) for EDEK.
Independent candidates won the remaining two (2) seats.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
<b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>February 1973</b> Makarios was
elected president of the Republic unopposed.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Turkish
Cypriots organized in parallel their own elections, with an attempt on
behalf of those in power to avoid contest and secure election
unopposed.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
1965, with the sole vote of Greek Cypriots, Communal Chambers were
abolished, following an amendment of the Constitution. The Greek
Communal Chamber’s competencies were passed to the newly established
Ministry of Education.</span><span lang=”EL” style=”mso-bidi-font-family: Times New Roman; mso-ansi-language: EL”><font face=”Verdana” size=”2″><o:p>
</o:p>
<o:p>
</o:p>
<br>
</font></span>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</center>
</div>
<table border=”0″ cellpadding=”0″ cellspacing=”0″ width=”500″>
<tr>
<td width=”15″></td>
<td width=”485″><span lang=”EL”><font face=”Verdana” size=”2″ color=”#CA130F”><b><b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana;color:#CC0000″>Elections
after 1974<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></b></b></font></span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td width=”15″></td>
<td width=”485″>
<p class=”MsoNormal” style=”line-height:150%”><span lang=”EL” style=”mso-bidi-font-family: Times New Roman; mso-ansi-language: EL”><font face=”Verdana” size=”2″>&nbsp;
</font></span><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
Turkish military invasion of </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> in summer 1974
brought about the division of the island on the ground, with Greek
Cypriots in the south and Turkish Cypriots in the north. The whole
operation was completed in August/September 1975, when the remaining
8,000 out of a total of 43,000 Turks living in the south were
transferred by the United Nations to the north, following what is
known as “the 3<sup>rd</sup> </span><st1:City>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Vienna</span></st1:place>
</st1:City>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> agreement”.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
February 1975, Turkish Cypriots declared the “</span><st1:place>
<st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Turkish</span></st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> </span><st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Federal</span></st1:PlaceName>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> </span><st1:PlaceType>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>State</span></st1:PlaceType>
</st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> of </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>” in the
territory of the Republic occupied by the Turkish army. Only </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Turkey</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> recognized it.
In July 1975 a referendum was organized for the approval of its
constitution.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
government of the Republic, which remained in Greek hands since the
crisis of 1963, decided to hold parliamentary elections on September
1976. They are contested by AKEL and EDEK, as well as by the new
formations, the Democratic Front (DIPA) led by Spyros Kyprianou and
the Democratic Rally, led by Glafcos Clerides and forming coalition
lists with the Democratic National Party (DEK).<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
plurality system allowed to a coalition of AKEL, DIPA and EDEK to
secure all the seats, excluding DISY from the House, despite its
share of about 27% of the votes. The share of seats between the
three parties was disproportionate, since AKEL satisfied itself with
only 9 (nine) seats, while Democratic Front got 21 (60% of the
total) and EDEK 4 (four). The remaining went to an independent
candidate supported by the coalition.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Following
the sudden death of archbishop Makarios, in September 1977 Spyros
Kyprianou took over as acting president of the Republic for the
remaining of his office, i.e. until <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>February
1978</b>. The kidnapping of Kyprianou’s son Achilleas created a
strange situation and Glafcos Clerides decided to withdraw his
candidacy, enabling Kyprianou’s unopposed election.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Problems
between Kyprianou and his main supporter, AKEL, in 1980 caused the
withdrawal of the latter’s support. Moreover, internal frictions
led to a major crisis and a number of deputies left the Democratic
Front, renamed Democratic Party; the party’s vice-chairman, Alecos
Michaelides formed the New Democratic Front (NEDIPA). During the
same period, former Kyprianou’s minister of Education Chrysostomos
Sofianos founded the Pancyprian Renewal Front (PAME) and former
interlocutor in the intercommunal talks Tassos Papadopoulos founded
the </span><st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Union</span></st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> of the Center.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
<b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>May 1981</b>, parliamentary
elections took place under a new electoral system, proportional
representation with a threshold (8%).<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>All
three new parties failed to win a seat in the House of
Representatives. AKEL won the largest support (32.8%) and 12 seats,
DISY was second with 31.9% and 12 seats, DIKO received only 19.5%
and 8 (eight) seats and EDEK 8.2% and 3 (three) seats.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Soon
after the elections, the rift between AKEL and Kyprianou is viewed
by the two parties under new angle; presidential elections were to
take place in February 1983 and a new alliance is sought. In April
1982, the Democratic Party and AKEL concluded an electoral agreement
for the reelection of Kyprianou. A “minimum program for
cooperation” formed the basis of the new coalition. As a result,
in <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>February 1983</b>,
Kyprianou was elected in the first round with 56.5%, while Clerides
received 33.9% and Lyssarides 9.5%.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
May 1984, the first ever local elections took place for village
authorities and improvement boards, as well as for community
presidents (muhtars).<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Anticipated
parliamentary elections took place in <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>December
1985</b>, following a long raw between the two largest parties on
one hand and Kyprianou on the other; the latter’s attitude and
positions on a UN initiative in January 1984 was at the origin of a
bitter rift with the parties.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
the meantime, the number of deputies was set to 80, thus 56 (up from
35) for the Greek Cypriots.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Only
the four parliamentary parties contested the elections; the
Democratic Rally expanded his appeal and became by far the largest
party with 33.6% and 19 seats, the Democratic Party increased its
share to 27,6% and 16 seats while AKEL received a serious blow and
only 27.4% and 15 deputies. EDEK also increased its share to 11% and
6 deputies.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>About
six months later, in May 1986, the first municipal elections after
independence took place.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
<b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>February 1988</b>, a
businessman, Georges Vassiliou, supported by AKEL is elected third <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:
normal”>President of the Republic</b>; he defeated Glafcos Clerides in the
second round, with 51.6% against 48.4%.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
May 1989, local elections took place for village authorities and
improvement boards, as well as for community presidents (muhtars).<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Changes
on the international scene and the collapse of the </span><st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Soviet Union</span></st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> and the eastern
block had some repercussions on </span><st1:country-region>
<st1:place>
<span style=”font-size:
10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Cyprus</span></st1:place>
</st1:country-region>
<span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”> as well. A
crisis started within AKEL that led to the exclusion or departure
from the party of a number of deputies and other officials. Some of
them joined forces with other leftist forces and formed the Renewal
Democratic Socialist Movement (ADISOK), headed by a former Trade
Union leader, Pavlos Dinglis.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Two
new formations emerged at that time, the Liberal Party, by former
minister Nicos Rolandis and Pancyprian Refugee Movement (PAKOP). The
former had its candidates on the lists of DISY, while PAKOP
presented lists only in constituencies where refugees originate (Lefkosia,
Kerynia, Ammochostos).<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
new parties failed to win any seats, the Democratic Rally increased
its support to 35.8% and 20 seats, AKEL won back some of the lost
ground with 30,6% and 18 seats, DIKO suffered a setback (19,5%) and
11 seats, while EDEK remained stable to 11% and 7 (seven) seats, one
more than in 1985.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Soon
after the elections, the Democratic Rally initiated a goodwill
approach to DIKO; it supported the latter’s vice chairman Alexis
Galanos to the office of the Speaker of the House of Representatives
and the two parties concluded a coalition pact for the mayoral
elections of December 1991. DISY was very generous, supporting DIKO
candidates in half of the municipalities.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
return, the Democratic Party supports the candidacy of Glafcos
Clerides to the Presidency, in <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>February
1993</b>. After two successive failures, in 1983 and 1988, Clerides
was elected in the second round President of the Republic, with a
lead of about 2000 votes.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>A
new electoral system, proportional representation with threshold set
to the percentage needed for one seat (1/56 or 1.8%) was adopted in
June 1995. With the hope that the new system would make it easier to
elect, two new parties are formed; the New Horizons and the Green
Party of Cyprus (Environmentalists Movement) along with the Free
Democrats Movement, which was formed in 1994 by the former president
Georges Vassiliou are the new forces to contest seats in the
Parliament.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>In
the <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>May 1996 elections</b>,
the only party to increase its appeal was AKEL, with 33% and 19
seats. The Democratic Party and socialist EDEK suffered important
losses and they were down to 16.4% and 8.1% while losses for the
Democratic Rally, which had common lists with the Liberals, were
limited to about 1.5 points, down to 34.4%. <o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Two
coalitions are formed in view of the mayoral elections in December
1996, the Democratic Rally joined again forces with the Democratic
Party and AKEL cooperated with EDEK. The latter managed to elect the
majority its candidates.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>The
central stage in the presidential elections of <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:
normal”>February 1998</b> is occupied by the Democratic Party and its leader,
Spyros Kyprianou. In an unprecedented move, 45 days before the
election, Kyprianou withdrew DIKO ministers who shared power for
about five years in the Clerides government and announced support
for AKEL’s candidate, Georges Iakovou.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Georges
Iakovou had a slight advantage in the first round over Clerides
(40.6% to 40.06%). Clerides was the final winner and reelected
president with 51.8%, in a fierce second round battle.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>Eight
parties contested the <b style=”mso-bidi-font-weight:normal”>May
2001</b> parliamentary elections: the Democratic Rally, AKEL, the
Democratic Party, the Social Democrats Movement (KISOS), which
succeeded EDEK), the United Democrats, which succeeded the Free
Democrats Movement that merged with ADISOK, the New Horizons, the
Environmentalists Movement and the newly formed Fighting Democratic
Movement (ADIK), founded by former minister and DIKO vice chairman
Dinos Michaelides.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>AKEL
increased its share to 34.7% and became the largest political force
while all other parties lost ground, with Democratic Rally down to
34%, the Democratic Party to 15.8% and KISOS to 6.5%. All four small
parties won one seat each, their share being as follows: United
Democrats 2.6%, New Horizons 3.0%, ADIK 2.2% and Environmentalists
2.0%.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>
<p class=”MsoNormal”><span style=”font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Verdana”>For
the first time, eight parties are represented in parliament.<o:p>
</o:p>
</span></p>